Professor Bart Kosko, Ph.D., J.D.
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Selected Journal Articles

''Fuzzy Cognitive Maps of Public Support for Insurgency and Terrorism,'' with Osonde Osoba, Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation, vol. 14, no. 1, 17 - 32, January 2017.
''Noise-Enhanced Convolutional Neural Networks,'' with Kartik Audhkhasi and Osonde Osoba, Neural Networks, vol. 78, 15 - 23, June 2016.
''The Noisy Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Multiplicative Noise Injection,'' with Osonde Osoba, Fluctuation and Noise Letters, vol. 15, no. 1, 1650007-1 - 1650007-23, March 2016.
''Noise-Benefit Forbidden-Interval Theorems for Threshold Signal Detectors Based on Cross Correlations,'' with Sanya Mitaim, Physical Review E, vol. 90, issue 5, 052124-1 - 052124-13, 14 November 2014.
''The Noisy Expectation-Maximization Algorithm,'' with Osonde Osoba and Sanya Mitaim, Fluctuation and Noise Letters, vol. 12, no. 3, 1350012-1 - 1350012-30, September 2013.
''Noisy Hidden Markov Models for Speech Recognition,'' with Kartik Audhkhasi and Osonde Osoba, IJCNN-2013, vol. 12, no. 3, 2738 - 2743, August 2013.
''Noise-Enhanced Clustering and Competitive Learning Algorithms,'' *(click here for correction) with Osonde Osoba, Neural Networks, vol. 37, 132-140, January 2013.
''Triply Fuzzy Function Approximation for Hierarchical Bayesian Inference,'' with Osonde Osoba and Sanya Mitaim, Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making, vol. 11, no. 3, 241-268, September 2012.
''Noise Can Speed Convergence in Markov Chains,'' with Brandon Franzke, Physical Review E, vol. 84, 041112-1 - 041112-14, 10 October 2011.
''Bayesian Inference with Adaptive Fuzzy Priors and Likelihoods,'' with Osonde Osoba and Sanya Mitaim, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-B, vol. 41, no. 5, 1183-1197, October 2011.
''Noise Benefits in Quantizer-Array Correlation Detection and Watermark Decoding,'' with Ashok Patel, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 59, no. 2, 488-505, February 2011.
''Optimal Mean-Square Noise Benefits in Quantizer-Array Linear Estimation,'' with Ashok Patel, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 17, no. 12, 1005-1009, December 2010.
''Quantum Forbidden-Interval Theorems for Stochastic Resonance,'' with Mark M. Wilde, Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, vol. 42, 465309(1-23), October 2009.
''Error-Probability Noise Benefits in Threshold Neural Signal Detection,'' with Ashok Patel, Neural Networks, vol. 22, no. 4, 697-706, July 2009.
''Optimal Noise Benefits in Neyman-Pearson and Inequality-Constrained Statistical Signal Detection,'' with Ashok Patel, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 57, no. 5, 1655-1669, May 2009.
''Applications of Forbidden Interval Theorems in Stochastic Resonance,'' with Ian Lee, et al., Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics, Springer-Verlag, 71-89, 2009.
''Stochastic Resonance in Continuous and Spiking Neuron Models with Levy Noise,'' with Ashok Patel, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 19, no. 12, 1993-2008, December 2008.
''Noise-Enhanced Detection of Subthreshold Signals With Carbon Nanotubes,'' with Ian Lee, et al., IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 5, no. 6, 613-627, November 2006.
"Modeling Gunshot Bruises in Soft Body Armor with an Adaptive Fuzzy System," with Ian Lee and W. French Anderson, IEEE Transactions on System, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 35, no. 6, 1374-1390, December 2005.
"Stochastic Resonance in Noisy Spiking Retinal and Sensory Neuron Models,'' with Ashok Patel, Neural Networks, vol. 18, 467-478, August 2005.
"Probable Equivalence, Superpower Sets, and Superconditionals," International Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol. 19, 1151-1171, December 2004.
"Adaptive Stochastic Resonance in Noisy Neurons Based on Mutual Information,'' with Sanya Mitaim, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks , vol. 15, no. 6, 1526-1540, November 2004.
"Robust Stochastic Resonance for Simple Threshold Neurons,'' with Sanya Mitaim, Physical Review E, vol. 70, 031911-1 - 031911-10, 27 September 2004.
"Nanosignal Processing: Stochastic Resonance in Carbon Nanotubes That Detect Subthreshold Signals," with Ian Lee, et al., Nano Letters, vol. 3, no. 10, 1683-1686, December 2003.
"Stochastic Resonance in Noisy Threshold Neurons,'' with Sanya Mitaim, Neural Networks, vol. 16, no. 5, 755-761, June 2003.
"Robust Stochastic Resonance: Signal Detection and Adaptation in Impulsive Noise,'' with Sanya Mitaim, Physical Review E, vol. 64, 051110-1 - 051110-11, 22 October 2001.
"The Shape of Fuzzy Sets in Adaptive Function Approximation,'' with Sanya Mitaim, IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 637-656, August 2001.
"Neural Fuzzy Agents for Profile Learning and Adaptive Object Matching,'' with Sanya Mitaim, Presence, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 617-637, December 1998.
"Adaptive Stochastic Resonance,'' with Sanya Mitaim, Proceedings of the IEEE: Special Issue on Intelligent Signal Processing, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 2152-2183, November 1998.
"Global Stability of Generalized Additive Fuzzy Systems,'' IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 441-452, August 1998.
"Neural Fuzzy Motion Estimation and Compensation,'' with Hyun Mun Kim, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2515-2532, October 1997.
"Fuzzy Throttle and Brake Control for Platoons of Smart Cars,'' with Hyun Mun Kim and Julie Dickerson, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 84, no. 3, 209-234, 23 December 1996.
"Fuzzy Function Approximation with Ellipsoidal Rules,'' with Julie Dickerson, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 26, no. 4, 542-560, August 1996.
"Fuzzy Prediction and Filtering in Impulsive Noise,'' with Hyun Mun Kim, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, pp. 15-34, vol. 77, no. 1, 15 January 1996.
"Adaptive Fuzzy Frequency Hopper,'' with P.J. Pacini, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 2111-2117, June 1995.
"Optimal Fuzzy Rules Cover Extrema,'' International Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 249-255, February 1995.
"Fuzzy Systems as Universal Approximators,'' IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 1329-1333, November 1994.
"Virtual Worlds as Fuzzy Cognitive Maps,'' with J.A. Dickerson, Presence, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 173-189, Spring 1994.
"The Probability Monopoly,'' IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 32-33, February 1994.
"Addition as Fuzzy Mutual Entropy,'' Information Sciences, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 273-284, October 1993.
''Fuzzy Logic,'' with Satoru Isaka, Scientific American, vol. 269, 76 - 81, July 1993.
''Adaptive Fuzzy Systems for Target Tracking,'' with P. J. Pacini, Intelligent Systems Engineering, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3-21, Autumn 1992.
''Stochastic Competitive Learning,'' IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 522-529, September 1991.
''Equilibrium in Local Marijuana Games,'' Journal of Social and Biological Structures, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 51-66, 1991.
''Unsupervised Learning in Noise,'' IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 44-57, March 1990.
''Fuzziness vs. Probability,'' International Journal of General Systems, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 211-240, 1990.
''Hidden Patterns in Adaptive and Combined Knowledge Networks,'' International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 377-393, October 1988.
''Bidirectional Associative Memories,'' IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 49-60, January-February 1988.
''Adaptive Bidirectional Associative Memories,'' Applied Optics, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 4947-4960, December 1987.
''Fuzzy Entropy and Conditioning,'' Information Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 165-174, 1986.
''Fuzzy Cognitive Maps,'' International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 24, pp. 65-74, 1986.
''Fuzzy Knowledge Combination,'' International Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol. 1, pp. 293-320, 1986.
''Counting with Fuzzy Sets,'' IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 556-557, July 1986.
''Differential Hebbian Learning,'' Neural Networks for Computing, American Institute of Physics, pp. 277-282, April 1986.